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高考英语阅读理解解析(2010湖南卷)

来源:学而思英语网 文章作者:学习 2010-07-26 15:31:21

A

L1PITOR

  56. What is a major function of Lipitor?
       A. To help quit smoking.
       B. To control blood pressure.
       C. To improve unhealthy diet.
       D. To lower "bad" cholesterol.              
  57. Taking Lipitor is helpful for              .
       A. breast-feeding women
       B. women who are pregnant
       C. adults having heart disease
       D. teenagers with liver problems.            
  58. If it has been over 12 hours since you missed a dose, you should        
       A. change the amount of your next dose     B. eat more when taking your next dose
       C. have a dose as soon as you remember    D. take the next dose at your regular time 
  59. Which of the following is a common side effect of taking Lipitor?
       A. Face swelling.       B. Upset stomach.
       C. Kidney failure.      D. Muscle weakness.      
  60. What is the main purpose of the passage?
       A. To teach patients ways for quick recovery.   
       B. To present a report on a scientific research.
       C. To show the importance of a good lifestyle.
       D. To give information about a kind of medicine.          

  本文为药品说明,主要介绍了药品Lipitor的作用、适用人群、副作用及服药的相关注意事项。
  56. 答案:D
  考点::细节理解
  解析:根据 "Along with diet and exercise,it lowers "bad,'cholesterol(胆固醇)in your blood.It can also raise "good'' cholesterol. ["可以推断出答案。
  57. 答案:C
  考点::细节理解
  解析:根据 "Lipitor can lower the risk of heart attack in patients with several common risk factors,
  including family history of early heart disease,high blood pressure,age and smoking. ["和 "Adults and children over l0"可以判断选C
  58. 答案:D
  考点::细节理解
  解析:根据 "If you miss a dose(一剂),take it as soon as you remember. [But if it has been more than 12 hours since your missed dose,wait.Take the next dose at your regular time. ["可以得出答案
  59. 答案:B
  考点::细节理解
  解析:根据 "Some common side effects of LIPITOR are:Muscle pain, Upset stomach, Changes in some blood tests" 可以得出答案
  60. 答案:D
  考点::推理判断题
  解析:文章先总体介绍药品Lipitor的作用,接着介绍药品的适用人群及不适用人群,然后介绍药品的副作用,最后介绍服药的注意事项,由此可以判断选D项。

B

  When Mary Moore began her high school in 1951, her mother told her, "Be sure and take a typing course so when this show business thing doesn't work out, you'll have something to rely on. " Mary responded in typical teenage fashion. From that moment on, "the very last thing I ever thought about doing was taking a typing course," she recalls.
  The show business thing worked out, of course. In her career, Mary won many awards. Only recently, when she began to write Growing Up Again, did she regret ignoring her morn," I don't know how to use a computer," she admits.
  Unlike her 1995 autobiography, After All, her second book is less about life as an award-winning actress and more about living with diabetes (糖尿病). All the money from the book is intended for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), an organization she serves as international chairman. "I felt there was a need for a book like this," she says. " I didn't want to lecture, but I wanted other diabetics to know that things get better when we're self-controlled and do our part in managing the disease. "
  But she hasn't always practiced what she teaches. In her book, she describes that awful day, almost 40 years ago, when she received two pieces of life-changing news. First, she had lost the baby she was carrying, and second, tests showed that she had diabetes. In a childlike act, she left the hospital and treated herself to a box of doughnuts (甜甜圈). Years would pass before she realized she had to grow u p ---again---and take control of her diabetes, not let it control her. Only then did she kick her three-pack-a-day cigarette habit, overcome her addiction to alcohol, and begin to follow a balanced diet.
  Although her disease has affected her eyesight and forced her to the sidelines of the dance floor, she refuses to fall into self-pity. "Everybody on earth can ask, 'why me?' about something or other," she insists. "It doesn't do any good. No one is immune (免疫的) to heartache, pain, and disappointments. Sometimes we can make things better by helping others. I've come to realize the importance of that as I've grown up this second time. I want to speak out and be as helpful as I can be. "

  61. Why did Mary feel regretful?
      A. She didn't achieve her ambition.
      B. She didn't take care of her mother.
      C. She didn't complete her high school.
      D. She didn't follow her mother's advice.            
  62, We can know that before 1995 Mary       
      A. had two books published
      B. received many career awards
      C. knew how to use a computer
      D. supported the JDRF by writing             
   63. Mary's second book Growing Up Again is mainly about her         .
      A. living with diabetes
      B. successful show business
      C. service for an organization
       D. remembrance of her mother              
  64. When Mary received the life-changing news, she         .
       A. lost control of herself     B. began a balanced diet
       C. Med to get a treatment     D. behaved in an adult way      
  65. What can we know from the last paragraph?
       A. Mary feels pity for herself.
       B. Mary has recovered from her disease.
       C. Mary wants to help others as much as possible.
  D. Mary determines to go back to the dance floor.          
  
  【语篇解读】本文为人物介绍说明文。主要介绍了玛丽·摩尔的职业生涯及抗病之争。
  61. 答案D
  考点::细节理解题。
  解析:根据第二段"Only recently,when she began to write Growing Up Again,did she regret ignoring her mom,'I don?t know how to use a computer,'she admits. "可判断选D项。
  62. 答案B
  考点::细节理解题。
  解析:根据第二段"The show business thing worked out,of course. In her career,Mary won many awards. "可判断选B项。
  63. 答案A
  考点::细节理解题。
  解析:根据第三段"her second book is less about life as an award?winning actress and more about living with diabetes (糖尿病). "可判断选A项。
  64. 答案A
  考点::细节理解题。
  解析:根据第四段"In a childlike act,she left the hospital and treated herself to a box of doughnuts (甜甜圈). Years would pass before she realized she had to grow up?again-and take control of her diabetes,not let it control her. "可判断选A项。
  65. 答案C
  考点::推理判断题。
  解析:根据最后一段中的Mary Moore 所说的话"I?ve come to realize the importance of that as I?ve grown up this second time. I want to speak out and be as helpful as I can be. "可推断她想尽可能地去帮助他人,故选C项。

C

  People from East Asia tend to have more difficulty than those from Europe in distinguishing facial expressions - and a new report published online in Current Biology explains why.
  Rachael Jack, University of Glasgow researcher, said that rather than scanning evenly(均匀的) across a face as Westerners do, Easterners fix their attention on the eyes.
  "We show that Easterners and Westerners look at different face features to read facial expressions," Jack said. "Westerners look at the eyes and the mouth in equal measure, whereas Easterners favor the eyes and neglect (忽略) the mouth. "
  According to Jack and her colleagues, the discovery shows that human communication of emotion is more complex than previously believed. As a result, facial expressions that had been considered universally recognizable cannot be used to reliably convey emotion in cross-cultural situations.
  The researchers studied cultural differences in the recognition of facial expressions by recording the eye movements of 13 Western Caucasian and 13 East Asian people while they observed pictures of. expressive faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, angry, or neutral. They compared how accurately participants read those facial expressions using their particular eye movement strategies.
  It turned out that Easterners focused much greater attention on the eyes and made significantly more errors than did Westerners. "The cultural difference in eye movements that they show is probably a reflection of cultural difference in facial expressions," Jack said. "Our data suggest that whereas Westerners use the whole face to convey emotion, Easterners use the eyes more and mouth less. "
  In short, the data show that facial expressions are not universal signals of human emotion. From here on, examining how cultural factors have diversified these basic social skills will help our understanding of human emotion. Otherwise, when it comes to communicating emotions across cultures, Easterners and Westerners will find themselves lost in translation.

  66. The discovery shows that Westerners         .
      A. pay equal attention to the eyes and the mouth
      B. consider facial expressions universally reliable
      C. observe the eyes and the mouth in different ways
      D. have more difficulty in recognizing facial expressions         
  67. What were the people asked to do in the study?
      A. To make a face at each other.      B. To get their faces impressive.
      C. To classify some face pictures.     D. To observe the researchers' faces.    
  68. What does the underlined word "they" in Paragraph 6 refer to?
      A. The participants in the study.
      B. The researchers of the study.
      C. The errors made during the study.
      D. The data collected from the study.             
  69. In comparison with Westerners, Easterners are likely to         .
    A. do translation more successfully
    B. study the mouth more frequently
    C. examine the eyes more attentively
    D. read facial expressions more correctly           
  70. What can be the best title for the passage?
      A. The Eye as the Window to the Soul
    B. Cultural Differences in Reading Emotions
    C. Effective Methods to Develop Social Skills
    D. How to Increase Cross-cultural Understanding        
  【语篇解读】本文为科普说明文。主要介绍了最新的科学研究发现:东方人比西方人更难于读懂他人的面部表情。

  66. 答案:A
  考点::细节理解题
  解析:根据第三段 "Westerners look at the eyes and the mouth in equal measure, whereas Easterners favor the eyes and neglect (忽略) the mouth. " 可以得出答案
  67. 答案:C
  考点::细节理解题
  解析:根据第五段 "…by recording the eye movements of 13 Western Caucasian and 13 East Asian people while they observed pictures of. expressive faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, angry, or neutral. "可以判断选C
  68. 答案:A
  考点::词义猜测
  解析:根据定语从句 "that they show"所修饰的 eye movements 在研究中为the participants 所作(从the eye movements of 13 Western Caucasian and 13 East Asian people"可知)可判断选A
  69. 答案:C
  考点::细节理解题
  解析:根据第六段 "It turned out that Easterners focused much greater attention on the eyes and made significantly more errors than did Westerners. "可判断选C
  70. 答案:B
  考点::主旨大意题
  解析:文章首先指出科学研究的最新发现:东方人比西方人更难于读懂人的面部表情。之后更具体地介绍研究的结构及其研究过程,最后得出结论:文化差异丰富了理解情感的基本社会技巧,即:不同的文化背景使人理解他人情感的方式也不尽相同。由此判断最佳标题应为B

 

 

Part 1V  Writing (45 marks)

Section A (10 marks)

    Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in the numbered blanks by using the information from the passage.
      Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
     An apprenticeship is a form of on-the-job training that combines workplace experience and classroom learning. It can last anywhere from one to six years, but four years is typical for most. An apprentice spends the majority of the time in a workplace environment learning the practical skills of a career from a journeyman-- someone who has done the job for many years. The rest of the apprentice's time is spent in a classroom environment learning the theoretical skills the career requires. Being an apprentice is a full-time undertaking.
     One of the advantages of apprenticeship is that it does not cost apprentices anything. The companies that hire them pay for school. What's more, it offers apprentices an "earn while you learn" opportunity. They usually start out at half the pay of a journeyman, and the pay increases gradually as they move further along in the job and studies. Near the end of the apprenticeship, their wages are usually 90 percent of what a journeyman would receive. Apprenticeship also pays off for employers. It can offer employers a pool of well-trained workers to draw from.
     Despite the advantages, apprentices are usually required to work during the day and attend classes at night, which leaves little time for anything else. Sometimes, they might be laid off(下岗) if business for the employers is slow.
     Once they have completed the apprenticeship and become journeymen, they receive a nationally recognized and portable certification and their pay also increases again. Some journeymen continue employment with the companies they apprenticed with; others go onto different companies or become self-employed contractors.

  71. Apprenticeship     72. classroom learning
  73. the majority     74. theoretical
  75. at the beginning    76. a jouneyman's wages
  77. many well-trained workers.   78. being laid off
  79. Results     80. another pay increase

  71. 答案Apprenticeship
      解析:全文是围绕"Apprenticeship"而展开描写的,故填Apprenticeship。
  72. 答案classroom learning[
      解析:根据第一段第一句"An apprenticeship is a form of on the job training that combines workplace experience and classroom learning. "可判断。
  73. 答案the majority
      解析:根据第一段"An apprentice spends the majority of the time in a workplace environment learning the practical skills of a career from a journeyman"可判断。
  74. 答案theoretical
      解析:根据第一段"The rest of the apprentice?s time is spent in a classroom environment learning the theoretical skills the career requires. "可判断。
  75. 答案at the beginning
      解析:根据第二段"They usually start out at half the pay of a journeyman,and the pay increases gradually as they move further along in the job and studies. "可判断。
  76. 答案a journeyman's wages
      解析:根据第二段"Near the end of the apprenticeship,their wages are usually 90 percent of what a journeyman would receive. " 可判断作答
  77. 答案:many well  trained workers
      解析:根据第二段 "It can offer employers a pool of well-trained workers to draw from. "可判断
  78. 答案: being laid off
      解析: 根据第三段 "Sometimes, they might be laid off(下岗) if business for the employers is slow. " 可判断
  79. 答案: Results
      解析:综合右栏内容可判断
  80. 答案:another pay increase
      解析:根据最后一段 "Once they have completed the apprenticeship and become journeymen, they receive a nationally recognized and portable certification and their pay also increases again. "可判断

Section B (10 marks)

     Directions: Read the following passage, Answer the questions according to the information given in the passage.

Secret Santas

      On Christmas morning, Linda wakes up, and tries to imagine the wide-eyed surprise of children in another household as they unwrap the presents she carefully chose for them. Linda has never met the children, but that’s all part of the joy of giving as secret Santas, she says.

      "It's an amazing feeling to buy gifts on an anonymous (匿名的) basis," says Linda. "It brings a whole new meaning to the holidays. "

      Linda and Tony are an American couple living in Toronto, Canada, and Linda did charitable work as a member of the American Women's Club of Toronto. As the name suggests, members are U. S. citizens living in Toronto, who join together for fellowship and community service.

      To find her "adopted" family, Linda goes to the local schools and requests a wish list for a family that's struggling to survive. Last year she helped a single mother with three children. The mother works as a cleaning lady in a nursing home.

      "The list is always heartbreaking. They have an opportunity to ask for anything and do just the opposite, asking for basic clothes or simple toys," she says. "We always buy the kids a new winter coat, hats, and gloves. " She also buys gifts for the parents.

       Last year Linda asked the mother for a second wish list--one that didn't include the basics. "Every child should have a Christmas that sticks with them for a lifetime. " She purchased iPods for the two older children and a video game system for the youngest. "I have learned a very valuable lesson in all of this," says Linda. "Pay attention to what's going on in your own backyard--no matter where you live. "

      The joy of giving as secret Santas is much sweeter when the gift is anonymous.

81. What reaction does Linda imagine the children will have?

      (No more than 5 words)                                               (2 marks)

  They will feel greatly surprised.                                         

82. Why did Linda join the American Women's Club of Toronto?

      (No more than 10 words)                                            (2 marks)

   She joined it for fellowship and community service.                          

83. Why did Linda ask for a second wish list?    

      (No more than 15 words)                                          (3 marks)

   She wanted to give the children some other gifts rather than the basics.          

84. What kind of people does "secret Santas" in the passage refer to?

      (No more than 12 words)                                          (3 marks)

   It refers to people who give away anonymous gifts on Christmas.               

81. 答案:They will feel greatly surprised

解析:根据第一段“Linda wakes up, and tries to imagine the wide-eyed surprise of children in another household as they unwrap the presents she carefully chose for them. ”可判断作答

82. 答案:She joined it for fellowship and community service

解析:根据第三段“Linda did charitable work as a member of the American Women's Club of Toronto. As the name suggests, members are U. S. citizens living in Toronto, who join together for fellowship and community service. ”可判断作答

83. 答案:She wanted to give the children some other gifts rather than the basics

解析:根据最后一段“Last year Linda asked the mother for a second wish list--one that didn't include the basics. "和“ She purchased iPods for the two older children and a video game system for the youngest. " 可判断作答

84. 答案:it refers to people who give away anonymous gifts on Christmas

解析:综合第一段和最后一段可推断作答。