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定语从句考点及热点问题

来源:学而思英语网 文章作者:学习 2010-06-29 14:51:30

[标签:定语从句 考点]

  定语从句是中学英语学习的主要语法内容之一,也是高考英语的常考知识点。在历年的高考试题中,相对集中地考查了非限定性定语从句、关系代(副)词的用法、语义重复、主谓一致及“介词+which(whom)”等有关定语从句的知识。下面以近十年来全国及上海高考题为例,谈谈定语从句的主要考点及其热点问题。

  一、非限定性定语从句。非限定性定语从句是出现频率最高的考点,99年和2000年都有这类考题。

  1.引导非限定性定语从句时,只能用 which(不用that)。例如(MET91):

  She heard the terrible noise ,____  brought her heart into her mouth.

  A.it  B.which  C.this D.that

  答案是B,which指代前面的先行词 noise,引导非限定性定语从句,并在从句中作主语。

  2.有时引导词which可以指前面整个句子的含义。例如(NMET2000):

  Dorothy was always spe aking highly of her role in the play,____ ,of course , made the others unhappy.

  A.who B.which C.this D.what(Key:B)

  3.除which外,还可用when,where , who(m)等关系代、副词引导非限定性定语从句。例如:

  Finally I decided to stay in Chong qing, where I finished my college study.

  4.在限定性定语从句中作宾语时,引导词可以省略,但引导非限定性定语从句的连词不能省。例如:

  He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother,whom he loved as his own mother.

  5.置于句首时,非限定性定语从句只能用as引导,而置于句末时as和which都可用。例如(上海高考题94):

  ____ is known to all,China will be an  ____ and powerful country in 20 or 30 years'time .

  A.That;advancing B.This ;advanced C.As;advanced D.It;advancing

  答案是C。但是当非限定性定语从句是否定意义时,只能用which引导。例如(NM ET94):

  The weather turned out to be very good,was more than we could expect.

  A.what  B.which C.that  D.if

  答案是B,句中的more than的本意为“超过”,“超过了我的预料”即为“我没有预料到”。这里不能用as代替which。

  二、先行词是表地点或时间的名词时,引导词的选择。例如(NMET96):

  After living in Paris for 50years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child.

  A.which  B.where C.that D.when

  答案是B,因为表地点的先行词the small town在从句中作状语;当表地点的先行词在从句中作主、宾、表语时,则要用that或which引导定语从句。例如:

  ①I visited the country which /that had been bombed by the US-led NATO(美国为首的北约)a month before .

  ②I shall never forget the years ____ I lived in the countryside with the farmers ,____  has a great effect on my life .(上海高考题94)

  A.that;which  B.when;which C.which;that D.when;who(Ke y:B)

  ③I'll never forget the ye ars that /which I spent with my cousin in Australia.

  先行词the years在第②句中作时间状语,在第③句中作spe nt的宾语,此时引导词 that /which可省略。

  三、“介词+关系代词(which /whom)”引导的定语从句。例如(上海高考题95):

  In the office I neve r seem to have time until after 5:30 pm ____ ,many people have gone home .

  A.whose time B.that C.on which D.by which time

  答案是D,by which time即by“after 5:30”“到五点三十分以后”。介词的选择,取决于这个介词与先行词或从句之间的关系。又如:

  Lei Feng ,from whom we have once learned a lot,is now an example to the soldiers of West Point Military School(西点军校)of America.

  关系代词前的介词from,与从句的谓语动词le arn构成习惯表达le arn from(向……学习)。

  四、语义的重复。例如(上海高考题98):

  He made another wonderful discovery,____  of great importance to science .

  A.which I think is B.which I think it is C.which I think it D.I think is

  答案是A。选项B重复了宾语it,因为关系代词which是think的逻辑宾语;此外,引导非限定性定语从句的连词不能省略,故选项D也不对。

  五、“介词+whom”引导的定语从句与 who /whom引导的宾语从句作介词宾语时的区别。试比较:

  It was a matter of ____  would take the position.(上海高考题96)

  A.who  B.whoever C.whom  D.whomever

  Kennedy and Johnson,both of were murde red in their terms,once coworked as president and vice -president.

  A.who  B.whoever C.whom  D.whomever

  答案分别为A和C。前者是宾语从句, who引导的整个宾语从句作介词of的宾语,同时who在从句中作主语,所以不能用 whom引导。后者是定语从句,whom作介词 of的宾语(所以不能用who引导),构成介、宾结构,作both的定语,而both才是定语从句的主语。

  六、定语从句中的主谓一致问题。试比较:

  The Oscar is the only one of the film prizes  ____ offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far.

  The Oscar is one of the film prizes ____ offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far.

  A.which is on B.that have not been C.that has not D.that has not been

  答案分别是D和B。前一例的先行词是 the only one,且指代它的引导词在从句中作主语,故从句的谓语动词必须用单数;又因先行词one被only修饰,所以只能用that引导。当one没有被the only或the very等修饰时,则介词of后面的the film prize s是先行词,从句中的谓语动词就必须用复数,而且引导词既可用that也可用which(第二例)。总之,当引导词在句子中作主语时,谓语动词的单、复数形式应该与该主语保持一致。

 

百科词条:定语从句 考点