E度首页 论坛(在线人) | 空间 | 作文 | 奥数 | 中考 | 高考 | 英语 | 幼教 | 网校 | 家教 | 网址 | 标签
英语网 英语天津站 > 高考英语 > 高中英语 > 正文

英语简单句的基本句型

来源:学而思英语网 文章作者:学习 2010-06-29 14:46:24

[标签:句型 电影 英语]

  由一个主语和一个谓语动词所组成的句子是简单句。谓语动词有及物动词、不及物动词和连系动词之分。正是谓语动词的特点决定着句子的不同结构,如连系动词后要接表语;大多数及物动词后接一个直接宾语,有的及物动词要接直接宾语和间接宾语,还有的及物动词要接复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)。要想写好简单句,我们必须记住以下六种句型,它们是语言的基本模式。

  【句型一】主语 + 谓语(不及物动词) + (状语[副词、名词、介词短语等])

  His father cooks. 他父亲做饭。

  The children are listening quietly. 孩子们在静静地听着。

  He runs fast in the street. 他在街上跑得飞快。

  The meeting begins at nine. 会议9点开始。

  They worked day and night. 他们夜以继日地工作。

  【点津】主语和不及物动词是组成本句型不可缺少的必要成分。上述句子虽然长短不一,但都属于这一基本句型。

  常见不及物动词:act(行动) , agree(同意),apologize(道歉), arrive(到达), appear(出现),blow(刮风),come(来),cough(咳嗽), close(关闭,结束),cook(做饭),cry(哭), decrease(减少)die(死), disagree(不同意),disappear(消失), exist(生存),  fall (跌落),  go(去),  grow(生长), happen(发生) ,jump(跳),leave(离开),live(居住), look(看), listen(听) , lie(说谎,位于),last(持续), open(开张), play(玩),  rise(升起,起床), ring(铃响),run(跑), smile (微笑),talk(讲话),tremble(颤抖),work(工作),walk(步行)


  【句型二】主语 + 谓语(及物动词) + 宾语( + 状语)

  He didn’t like the film. 他不喜欢这部电影。

  She often helps him. 她经常帮助他。

  I have already finished reading the book. 我已经读完这本书了。

  They decided to go hiking. 他们决定去徒步旅行。

  He thought about the problem for a few moments. 他把这个问题思考了一会儿。

  【点津】此句型中的谓语动词既可以是及物动词,也可以是短语动词,后面的宾语可以是名词、代词、动名词或动词不定式。修饰谓语动词的状语通常放在句末,这些状语多数是副词或介词短语,也可以是名词短语、分词或不定式短语。

  常见的单宾语及物动词有:accept,admire,admit,affect, afford, announce, borrow, bury, celebrate, cover,defeat, defend, destroy, devote, pretect,discover, educate, enjoy, equip, explain, forget, guess, invent, love, post, raise, supply, use


  【句型三】主语 + 系动词 + 表语

  Your watch looks very nice. 你的手表看起来很漂亮。

  The mooncake tastes very delicious. 这种月饼尝起来很可口。

  The days get shorter and shorter. 白天变得越来越短了。

  In spring, the trees turn green. 春天,树变绿了。

  【点津】此句型中的谓语动词是连系动词,如appear(显得), be , seem(好像), turn(变+颜色), taste(尝起来), feel(感觉), smell(嗅起来), fall(变+asleep/ill),keep(保持),go(变+表不好的形容词),get(变得+温度形容词) ,grow(变+young/old),become (变得), sound(听起来),look(看起来) 等,作表语的可以是名词、代词、形容词等。


  【句型四】主语 + 及物动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

  Please give me a few apples. 请给我几个苹果。

  I’ll show you my photos. 我将给你看我的照片。

  【点津】此句型中的及物动词后接两个宾语(双宾语),即指人的间接宾语和指物的直接宾语。通常情况下,间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后。有时间接宾语也可改为由介词to或for引起的短语,放在直接宾语的后面。

  She passed him the salt. = She passed the salt to him. 她把盐递给了他。

  His uncle bought him a birthday present yesterday. = His uncle bought a birthday present for him yesterday. 昨天,他叔叔给他买了一件生日礼物。

  由介词 to 连接间接宾语的动词常见的有:

  give somebody something =give something to somebody,

  pass somebody something =pass something to somebody,

  tell somebody something = tell something to somebody,

  show somebody something = show something to somebody,

  offer somebody something = show something to somebody,

  lend somebody something =lend something to somebody,

  take somebody something = take something to somebody ,

  teach somebody something = teach something to somebody

  write somebody something = write something to somebody ;

  由介词 for 连接间接宾语的动词常见的有:

  buy somebody something = buy something for somebody ,

  cook somebody something = cook something for somebody

  get somebody something = get something for somebody ,

  make somebody something = make something for somebody ,

  choose somebody something = choose something for somebody ,

  sing somebody something = sing something for somebody


  【句型五】主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语

  We call him Tom for short. 我们简称他为汤姆。

  At first I found Chinese quite hard. 开始时我发现汉语相当难。

  Tell him not to be late tomorrow. 告诉他明天不要迟到。

  He made all of us laugh. 他使我们都大笑起来。

  The little girl often helps her mother (to) do the housework. 这个小女孩经常帮她的母亲做家务活。

  We found a cat lying under the chair. 我们发现有一只猫躺在那把椅子下面。

  The six students keep their hands behind their backs. 这6个学生把他们的手放在他们的背后。

  【点津】此句型中的宾语后面需接上宾语补足语来补充说明宾语的有关情况,这样意思才完整。宾语和宾语补足语合称复合宾语,宾语与宾语补足语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓或主表关系。可作宾语补足语的有名词、形容词、现在分词、动词不定式、介词短语等。

  1. 接名词作宾语补足语的动词常见的有:call, make, think, name 等。

  2. 接形容词作宾语补足语的动词常见的有:keep, make, find, think ,declare等。

  3. 动词不定式作宾语补足语时通常分为以下三种情况:

  (1) 接带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词常见的有:

  want somebody to do想某人做某事ask somebody to do 请某人做某事

  wish somebody to do希望某人做某事tell somebody to do 告诉某人做某事

  teach somebody to do教某人做某事encourage somebody to do鼓励某人做某事

  warn somebody to do警告某人做某事advise somebody to do建议某人做某事

  order somebody to do命令某人做某事force somebody to do强迫某人做某事

  like somebody to do 喜欢某人做某事get somebody to do 让某人做某事

  allow somebody to do 允许某人做某事beg somebody to do乞求某人做某事

  cause somebody to do导致某人做某事expect somebody to do 期望某人做某事

  invite somebody to do 邀请某人做某事forbid somebody to do 禁止某人做某事

  require somebody to do 要求某人做某事persuade somebody to do 说服某人做某事

   (2) 接不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词常见的有:

  let somebody  do使某人做某事make somebody  do使某人做某事

  see somebody  do看见某人做了某事hear somebody  do, 听见某人做了某事

  watch somebody  do 观察某人做了某事

  (3) 接带 to 或不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词常见的是

  help somebody ( to ) do 帮助某人做某事

  4. 接现在分词作宾语补足语的动词常见的有:

  hear somebody doing 听见某人正做某事see somebody doing, 看见某人正做某事

  watch somebody doing, 观察某人正做某事keep somebody doing 让某人保持做某事

  find somebody doing 发现某人正做某事


  【句型六】There be + 主语 + 状语(介词短语)

  There is some meat on the plate. 盘里有些肉。

  Long, long ago, there lived a king. 很久以前有一个国王。

  There stands a school on the hill. 山上有一所学校。

  There are going to be two football matches this afternoon. 今天下午有两场足球比赛。

  There was a bike under the tree just now. 刚才树底下有辆自行车。

  There are some people in the hall. 大厅里有些人。

  There is a pen and some books on the desk. 书桌上有支钢笔和几本书。

  There are some apples and an orange in the basket. 在篮子里有一些苹果和一个橘子。

  【点津】本句型又叫 There be 句型,常用来表示“在某地(某时) 有某物(某人)”,但应注意与have 的区别:have / has 作“有”讲时,表示所属关系,即“所有,占有”,而 there be 结构表示客观上的存在,不说明所有关系。

  There is a new pen in Jim’s pencil-box. 在吉姆的铅笔盒里有一支新钢笔。(钢笔在铅笔盒里)

  Jim has a new pen. 吉姆有支新钢笔。(钢笔为吉姆所有)

  在此句型中,there 是引导词,无实义, 其主语是 be 动词之后的名词或名词短语, 且这些名词或名词短语通常用不确定的限定词(a, no, all 等) 修饰, 不用确定的限定词(the, this, that 等) 修饰。同时,此句型中的主语不能是人称代词、专有名词以及被物主代词或所有格修饰的名词。如不能说:

  There is China in the east of the world.

  There are their books on the desk.

  There are they under the tree.

  注意:动词 be 在人称和数上应和其后的主语(名词) 保持一致, 即主语是不可数名词或单数可数名词时用 is,复数可数名词时用 are。若 be 后有两个或两个以上的名词作主语时,be动词应采取“邻近原则”,即 be 应与邻近的主语在数上保持一致。动词 be 的时态随具体情况而定。

  在此句型中,谓语动词有时不用 be,而用其他动词,使语言表达更生动形象,如 live, stand, lie 等。


 

百科词条:句型 电影 英语