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小升初语法总结二十——被动语态

来源:学而思英语网 文章作者:学习 2010-04-16 14:11:52

[标签:语法 小升初]

  动词的语态主要分为两种:主动语态与被动语态主动语态指主语是谓语功作的执行者。被动语态指主语是谓语动作的承受者。

  I have done the job.(主动句)

  The job has been done.(被动句)

  1.被动语态根据时态的不同,可分为以下几种类型:

  一般现在时:am/is/are+done;

  一般过去时:was/were+done

  现在进行时:am/is/are+being done

  过去进行时:was/were+being done

  将来时 :will/would+be done,be going to be done, be to be done

  现在完成时:have/has +been done

  过去完成时:had+been done

  将来完成时:will+have been done

  2.被动语态和主功语态一样具有不同时态,其时态的变化取决于时间状语,其时态的变化形式由其助动词be的事态变化形式来体现

  The house is being painted now.(现在进行时被动语态)

  Tom has been said to him about it.(现在完成时被动语态)

  The furniture was bought last week..(过去时被动语态)

  You'll be punished one day.(将来时被动语态)

  3.被动语态的意义

  (1)不知道或没必要指出行为、动作的执行者

  Colour TV sets are sold in that shop.

  Football is plated all over the world.

  (2)突出和强调行为或动作的承受着。

  History is made by the people.

  The wounded soldiers have been saved by those people.

  (3)有时主语较长,可后置。

  It's said that we have won the game.

  4.在实义动词make及感官动词see ,hear….等动词的被动语态形式后面出现的作主语补足语的不定式须加不定式符号“to"?

  The teacher made Tom answer it again.(主动语态,不加“to" )

  Tom was made to answer it again.(被动语态,加“to" )

  5.短语动词的被动语态要注意不可丢失其附加的介词、副词或短语。

  look at,laugh at,send for,call on,carry out, listen to,take care of ,make use of,depend on,pay attention to,hand in,put on,look up,give up〕等.

  6. be+过去分词可以是被动语态形式,也可以是系表结构形式。区别是,系表结构表示主语状态或特征,不带by短语;而被动语态是表示主语的一个被动动作,可以带by短语。

  The job was well done.(系表结构)

  The job was well done by a skilled worker.(被动语态)

  The composition is well written.(系表结构)

  The composition is written with great care;.(被动语态)

  7.原来主动语态中的宾语如果是从句,变为被动语态时,要用形式主语it.

  It has been known to him that many friends will come to see him.

  It is said that this book has been translated into several languages.

  8.有一些动词不能用被动语态。

  break out,take place,happen,belong to,cost,suit,fit,have,let, wear, weigh. suffer, pass, kill the time, enter, last, meet(遇见),join(参加),fail等

  9.宾语为反身代词时,不用被动语态,只用主动语态形式。

  The man introduced himself as Mr. Wang.

  10.有些动词或情态动词常用所接的不定式来表示被动意义。

  如:happen,pretend,seem,used to,ought to,appear等。

  The house used to be painted white.

  The job has to be done before dark.

  On the way we happened to be caught in the rain.

  11.有些动名词在want, need, require和介词worth后形式为主动,意义为被动。

  12.有些动词用主动形式来表示被动意义。如:clean, sell,look,lock,open,write,read,wash,feel等。

  This kind of cloth washes easily.

  These books sell well.(好卖)

  The door doesn't lock.

  The door can't open.

  This pen writes very well.

  13.除助动词be可以构成被动语态外,get, become等词也可以+过去分词构成被动意义。

  She was unhappy because she didn't get invited to the party.

练习题:

  1. —Lizzy, you ________ on the phone.
     —I’m coming. Thanks.
    A. want                        B. are wanting
    C. are wanted                D. have wanted
  2.—What’s wrong with that boy?
    —He ________ by a car yesterday.
    A. is hit                        B. hit
    C.was hit                      D. hits
  3. Oh, the milk ________ strange—do you think it’s OK to drink?
    A. is tasted                    B. is tasting
    C. tastes                       D. tasted
  4. These books should ________ to the library on time.
    A. send                          B. be returned
    C. give back                   D. be got back
  5. Could you tell me which ________ best among the books on sale?
    A. is sold                        B. sells             
    C. are written                 D. writes
  6. Most international business letters ________ in English.
    A. is written                   B. are written
    C. is writing                   D. are writing
  7. —Have you found the ruler yet?
     —Yes, it ________ in my bag two days ago.
    A. has found                  B. found
    C. has been found           D. was found
  8. My English book ________. I can’t lend it to you.
    A. has been lost              B. was lost
    C. has lost                      D. lost
  9. The bag of rice ________ until it was too late.
    A. didn’t see                   B. didn’t seen
    C. isn’t seen                   D. wasn’t seen
  10. —Where is Jim’s telephone number?
      —It ________ on the blackboard already.
    A. writes                        B. wrote
    C. is written                   D. has been written

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