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小升初语法总结十七——虚拟语气

来源:学而思英语网 文章作者:学习 2010-04-12 15:32:35

[标签:语法 小升初]

  如果你看到下列的句子,你会认为它们是正确的还是错的呢?

  1.I wish I were a bird.

  2.We request that you be here tomorrow.

  也许你会说:"哈哈,第一句的 I were 错了,应该是 I was;而第二句中的 you be是什么东东呀?不是 you are, 也不是 you will be, 什么 you be?!"其实上面的句子都是一种称为 Subjunctive 类型的句子。Subjunctive Mood 有的书译为"假设语气",虽不很贴切;但在相当大的程度上,告诉我们这种句子的特点。Subjunctive Mood中文译作"虚拟语气",似乎不及"假设语气"那么容易明白。它是一种动词形式,表示说话人的某种假设、愿望、怀疑、猜测、建议等含义。基本上,虚拟语气可分为虚拟现在(Subjunctive Present)和虚拟过去(Subjunctive Past)两种;但它们和时态(Tenses)上所指的现在时态(Present Tense)和过去时态(Past Tense)是有所不同的。

  一、虚拟现在(Subjunctive Present):

  虚拟现在的句子,在任何时候都要用动词的原形(root form),就算是第三人称(he,she, it)也是如此。如:

  1.1 现在时态(Simple Present): (右边为虚拟语气)

   I work ---- I work

   you work ---- you work

   he works ---- he work (注意到了吗,是 work,不是 works)

   she works ---- she work (不是 she works 喔)

   it works ---- it work (同样不是 it works 喔)

   we work ---- we work

   they work ---- they work

  1.2 现在进行时态(Present Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

  I am working ---- I be working (注意用的是 be,怪怪的!)

   you are working ---- you be working

   he is working ---- he be working

   she is working ---- she be working

   it is working ---- it be working

   we are working ---- we be working

   they are woring ---- they be working

  1.3 现在完成时态(Present Perfect):(右边为虚拟语气)

  I have worked ---- I have worked

   you have worked ---- you have worked

   he has worked ----- he have worked (用的还是have喔)

   she has worked ---- she have worked

   it has worked ---- it have worked

   we have worked ---- we have worked

   they have worked ---- they have worked

  1.4 现在完成进行时态(Present Perfect Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

   I have been working ---- I have been working

   you have been working ---- you have been working

   he has been working ---- he have been working (是 he have, 不是 he has )

   she has been working ---- she have been working

   it has been working --- it have been working

   we have been working ---- we have been working

   they have been working ---- they have been working

  二、虚拟过去(Subjunctive Past)

  虚拟过去的动词无论在什么情况之下都要用过去复数形式。如:动词 be,在虚拟过去中要用 were。

  2.1 过去时态(Simple Past):(右边为虚拟语气)

   I worked ---- I worked

   you worked ---- you worked

   he worked ---- he worked

   she worked ---- she worked

   it worked ---- it worked

   we worked ---- we worked

   they worked ---- they worked

  2.2 过去进行时态(Past Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

   I was working ---- I were working (注意是 I were)

   you were working ---- you were working

   he was working ---- he were working (是 he were 喔)

   she was working ---- she were working

   it was working ---- it were working

   we were working ---- we were working

   they were working ---- they were working

  2.3 过去完成时态(Past Perfect):(右边为虚拟语气)

   I had worked ---- I had worked

   you had worked ---- you had worked

   he had worked ---- he had worked

   she had worked ---- she had worked

   it had worked ---- it had worked

   we had worked ---- we had worked

   they had worked ---- they had worked

   (耶,全部都用 had ! )

  2.4 过去完成进行时态(Past Perfect Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

   I had been working ---- I had been working

   you had been working ---- you had been working

   he had been working ---- he had been working

   she had been working ---- she had been working

   it had been working ---- it had been working

   we had been working ---- we had been working

   they had been working ---- they had been working

练习题

  (1). If I ______ you, I would go by plane. Flying is much faster.

        A. be     B. was    C. were    D. am

  (2). I do not think those people are really English. If they were, they ____ speak

       wish French accents.

        A. don't    B. will not    C. mustn't   D. wouldn't

  (3)._____ today, would we be able to get there by Tuesday?

        A. Were we leaving        B. If we leave

        C. Would we leave         D. Were we to leave
  
  (4). If Jone ____ tomorrow, what would you do?

        A. were not to come         B. will not come

        C. would not come           D. had not come

  (5). “She didn't ask me, so I didn't help her?”

       “You mean to say ____ , you would've helped her ?”

      A. if she asked you       B. if she were to ask you

      C.had she asked you      D. were she to ask you

  (6). They took the injured straight to the hospital. Otherwise some of them ___.

        A. might have died   B. might die   C. would die  D. could die

  (7). If they had known him, ___to him?

        A. would they have talked       B. would they talk 

      C.had they talked              D. they would talk

  (8). If I lived in the city, I __travel in croweded buses, but I__to see lots of films.

         A. shall have to/shall be able     B. shall have to/am able

         C. would have to/were able      D. would have to/would be able

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