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初中(初三)英语中考总复习之——定语从句篇

来源:网络 文章作者:匿名 2009-01-04 17:35:03

中小学英语学习必备APP

(一) 知识概要 ?
定语从句并不属于中考范围,但由于作者在多年的教学中体会到,这一语法现象影响了许多学生自学英语。这些学生一般是成绩较好的学生,想进行大量阅读来提高自己的英语水平,但总是碰到一些问题,百思不得其解。苦于自己的水平只限于初中水平,无法提高,但各种补习班又都是为一些水平较差的学生开设的,所以又投师无门。为了解决这部分学生的学习困难,也为那些有志青年铺平学习上的道路,特用这一节讲述定语从句,不是从语法上讲述,而是从阅读理解方面去讲述。可供同学们在学习时参考。这会对你的英语学习起到事半功倍的作用。?对于形容词我们已十分熟悉了,如: a good book, 形容词 good 用来修饰书 book。 我们也可以用一个句子来修饰名词,这种句子叫做形容词性从句,它起修饰名词的作用,又被叫做定语从句(The attributive clause)。但有一点不同的是这个从句不是像形容词那样放于名词前,而是放在名词之后。它所修饰的名词又被叫作先行词,如: Do you know the scientist who gave us the talk this afternoon? 这句中的主句是 Do you know the scientist? (你知道那位科学家吗?)而 who gave us the talk this afternoon (他今天下午给我们作的报告。)是定语从句。所以这两句话合为一体即是:你认识今天下午给我们作报告的那位科学家吗?这里 scientist 叫作先行词,而 who 叫作定语从句的引导词。 who 在定语从句中起主语的作用, who 的数与它的先行词相同。又如: You must do everything that I do? 这里先行词是 everything, 而 that I do 是定语从句,此句应译为:你必须作我所作的一切。 that 叫作定语从句的引导词,在句中作 do 的宾语。?引导定语从句的引导词有关系代词: that, which, who, whom, whose 和关系副词 when, where, why, how。不论关系代词还是关系副词,都应放于先行词和定语从句之间,起联系作用,但它们都要在定语从句中起语法作用,充当一个成份。如关系代词在定语从句中不是作主语便是作宾语,而关系副词则是作状语。我们先来看关系代词的用法。① that 的先行词可以是人也可以是物。如: A plane is a machine that can fly? 这里先行词是 machine 而 that 是关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。这句译为:飞机是一种会飞的机器。又如: I like the book (that) you lent me yesterday? 这里先行词是 book, 关系代词用 that, 它在定语从句中作 lend (借)的宾语。要注意的是关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略,即: I like the book you lent me yesterday?② which 关系代词的先行词只能是物。它在定语从句中作主语或宾语,如: The book shop is a shop which sells books? 这里 shop 是先行词, which 在从句中作主语。又如: The book (which) I read last night was wonderful? 这里主句是 The book was wonderful? 而定语从句是修饰主句的主语 book, 即我昨晚读的那本书,which 在定语从句中作 read 的宾语,可以省略。?③ who, whom, whose? who 在定语从句中作主语, whom 是 who 的宾格,在定语从句中作宾语,而 whose 则是形容词性物主代词,在从句中作定语,如:The man who visited our school yesterday is an American friend? 昨天参观我们学校的人是一位美国朋友。 Who 在定语从句中作主语。又如: Who's that woman (whom) you just talked to ? 你刚才与之谈话的那个女人是谁?而 whom 作定语从句中介词 to 的宾语,可以省略,而在现代英语中,句首的 whom 也常常可用 who代替。?This is our classmate, Mary, whose home is not far from our school? 这是我们的同学玛丽,她的家离我们学校不远。?为了便于理解,我们来看看是如何将两句话并为一句话的。?
1.  I saw the man.? He closed the door??
I saw the man who (that) closed the door?
2.  The girl is happy? She won the race??
The girl who won the race is happy?
3.  The students are from China? They sit in the front row??
The students who sit in the front row are from China?
(要注意的是先行词是 students 则 who 的数也应看作复数。)?
4.  We are studying sentences? They contain adjective dause??
We are studying sentences that (which) contain adjective dause? ?
5.  The taxi driver was friendly? He took me to the airport??
The taxi driver who took me to the airport was friendly? ?
6.  The book was good? I read it??
The book that I read was good??
The book I read was good? ?
7.  The people were very nice? We visited them yesterday??
The people we visited yesterday were very nice?
8.  The man called the police? His wallet was stolen??
The man whose wallet was stolen called the police?
9.  I come from a country? Its history goes back thousands of years??
I come from a country whose history goes back thousands of years?
10.  I have to call the man? I picked up his umbrella after the meeting??
I have to call the man whose umbrella I picked up after the meeting?

百科词条:总复习 初三 英语

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